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ORTHODOX  July 2003, Week 1

ORTHODOX July 2003, Week 1

Subject:

Toll Houses: dogma, a logic of damnation, and taking the implications seriously....................

From:

Fr Ambrose <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Orthodox Christianity <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 6 Jul 2003 02:40:17 +1200

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (115 lines)

Some thoughts, not mine but those of a thoughtful Orthodox Christian...

Father Ambrose

[By the way:  Would Rostislav Mikhailovich Malleev-Pokrovsky please stop
sending me the nasty private posts.  If you want to say something, send it
openly to the List. Many thanks.]
---

Toll Houses: dogma, a logic of damnation, and taking the implications
seriously....................

To judge by this and other discussions on other Orthodox lists I've been
involved in, the topic of the toll-houses is a perennial source of
agitation.

In fairness, I must say frankly that I remain deeply skeptical of the
toll-house belief, at least as I understand to be its fully developed form:
(a) that after death each person enters into a series of terrifying
accusatory encounters with demons, who in each of many successive "toll
houses" or trials (b) test him to find whether he has been guilty of a
specific type of sin, and ( c ) if they find him guilty (i.e., not having
repented and been absolved) of any one of those sins, take him to Hell to
await the Last Judgment; in addition, I understand that (d) the demons also
try to tempt him to surrender to sin even in death so that they may take him
to Hell even if his earthly life alone has not altogether warranted it. (My
comments below however pertain to the belief whether or not part (d) is
considered to be part of it.)  Nevertheless, despite my skepticism, I really
do remain open to persuasion on the subject, and am posting this message in
that spirit.

Fr. Ambrose and Steve Marin have strikingly raised the possibility that the
toll-house belief, though acknowledgedly not dogma or doctrine,
seems to be developing into such in some parts of the Orthodox Church.  With
that insight in mind, I pose the following interrelated questions
to Father John and others who accept the belief in the toll houses. I do so
respectfully and in a sincere spirit of inquiry, not wishing to score
"points" but truly to understand the beliefs of others, and their full
implications, as I struggle with this concept myself. My basic
contention--of which I am happy to be disabused--is that the toll-house
belief cannot be optional, cannot be theologoumenon: if it has any validity,
it must be recognized as dogma, because it presents a logic that
significantly modifies certain essential elements of Orthodox understanding.

1. The question of dogma, or doctrine. If the toll-houses are real, how can
they not be dogma? For any one of us as individuals, the difference between
(1) knowing that we will live and die as sinners but must nevertheless
struggle in all our imperfection to repent and trust joyfully in God's
mercy, looking forward eagerly to meeting Him "face to face" after death,
and (2), alternatively, knowing that despite God's will for us, any sin that
remains on our souls at death is sufficient to doom us to Hell in the
company of our demonic adjudicators, is more than a matter of life and
death; it is a matter of eternal life and eternal death. It is the
difference between dying in realistic sorrow for one's sins yet realistic
joyful trust in God and dying in realistic terror of the decisive demonic
trials that are to come. It is the difference, in other words, between
having ultimate hope in spite of all that we have done and having ultimate
terror in spite of all that Christ has done. So I ask: how can a belief with
such all-important consequences not be regarded as dogma? Why has there not
been more of an effort to have this belief recognized as such? (By contrast,
one must at least do the Roman Church the justice to acknowledge that once
Catholics came to believe in Purgatory, they were right to recognize its
momentous importance and enshrine it as dogma.) Perhaps the "development of
dogma/doctrine" problem that Fr. Ambrose and Steve Marin identify in
relation to the toll houses is in fact not a problem but a welcome step
necessary to complete the Orthodox understanding of salvation and damnation,
much as St. Gregory Palamas's defense of Hesychasm completed the Orthodox
understanding of the nature of theosis.

2. The question of our sinful nature. As Orthodox, we know--intellectually
at first, perhaps, but also eventually in our hearts, as we continue to
struggle spiritually--that our sinfulness is more than a matter of specific
sins; it is a matter of a condition of sinfulness, a constant state of
blindness and self-centeredness that keeps us from loving God and others as
we are called to do, and that guarantees that even a few seconds after
receiving absolution, we will almost certainly have sinned again, if only by
not being fully aware of the beauty and lovableness of the first person we
meet as we walk out of church after confession. We sin, yes, but in some
ways the deeper problem is that we sin because we are sinful. (Those better
than I at memorizing Scripture can here supply the appropriate Pauline
texts.)  How does the belief in the toll houses, with its affirmation of
specific trials for specific areas of sin, address this understanding that
the real problem is in some sense not "sins" but sinfulness; not so much
(except in obvious dire cases, such as murder) any particular act committed
or omitted, but our very condition; not the parts, but the whole that is
more--or, perhaps, less--than the sum of the parts?

3. The question of the nature of God's justice in contrast with human and
demonic justice (and here I do not mean primarily the very problematic
"fact" that in the toll houses it is the demons who judge us, the demons who
execute Divine justice). God's justice, as St. Isaac the Syrian says, has
almost nothing to do with human justice; what is "just" about His
sacrificial love for us? What is "just" about the halting and reluctant
steps of the Prodigal being met by the outpouring of forgiveness and
generosity from his father? (One thinks also of the profound Russian
folktale Dostoevsky recounts in The Brothers Karamazov, about the woman in
Hell who was almost released from it because she had
once shared an onion with a beggar--but at the last minute she claimed the
onion as hers exclusively, and so slipped back into Hell.) Such an
understanding turns the toll-house belief on its head: the toll houses tell
us that one unrepented sin is enough to damn us; the Gospels, St.
Isaac (among many others), and the theological wisdom of traditional Russian
culture tell us that God seeks endlessly to find some way to save us, and
suggest that one spontaneous act of love or repentance can give Him the
lever He longs to find to release us into His mercy. How
can these two beliefs be reconciled?

--------------------- i.  ------------------------

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December 1996, Week 5
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February 1994, Week 3
February 1994, Week 2
February 1994, Week 1
January 1994, Week 5
January 1994, Week 4
January 1994, Week 3
January 1994
December 1993

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