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ORTHODOX  July 2003, Week 1

ORTHODOX July 2003, Week 1

Subject:

Aerial Daemons in Paganism and Christianity

From:

John Goodwin <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Orthodox Christianity <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 7 Jul 2003 15:15:09 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (145 lines)

Sometimes, in understanding why Christians expressed opinions on various subjects,
it helps to see "what the pagans were saying".  Comparing Christian to Pagan opinions
doesn't "prove Christians just rehashed paganism", but rather shows that the opinions
had a contemporaneous context.  In particular, if we pair Christian opinions on aerial
daemons with pagan ones, we might see in greater relief what was distinctive of the
Christian view.

The question of aerial daemons increased in importance in relation to a development in
the pagan response to Christianity.  In the second and especially third century, paganism
began to develop a dual attitude towards Christianity.  One was to appropriate much
Christian material for occult, magic, or theurgic purposes, as the "Christian" _Testament
of Solomon_:

<http://www.esotericarchives.com/solomon/testamen.htm>

The other was expressed in the persecutions.

Notice that this text includes a reference to the "daemons in the way" (enodiai).  It is helpful
to remember that the "crossroads gods" or =trivialibus dis= (three-way gods) would have been
likenesses of Hermes, taken in this period to be equivalent to Thoth, the Egyptian god of the
dead.  This common feature of the pre-Christian Roman empire would have been familiar to Christians,
who thought the pagan gods not tutelary deities, but daemons--the "adversary in the Way".

Also notice that when philosophy is taught in "academic universities" it is the Trivia that is taught--
perhaps an esoteric reference to dangle in front of those seeking secular knowledge.  [Speculative
aside: The Quadrivium (hence Quadrans?) includes knowledge of the sphere--the upper reaches of
philosophy.  Three and Four are the last stages of the Pythagorean tetractys (the "holy" symbol of
one-two-three-four arranged as a triangular number).  Thus, giving up ones "quadrans" at the
"trivium" might be symbolic.]

In case you believe this "numerology" foreign to Christianity, consider Evagrios, who explains
the 153 fishes caught by St. Peter at the end of St. John's gospel in reference to triangular
(like the tetractys) and hexagonal numbers.  St. Symeon, writing in the same tradition, has
153 texts in one of his works.  Thus, a tendency to play with mystical numerology is part and
parcel of the core evangelical tradition, with examples in the New Testament, early ascetics,
and later.

The religion of Thoth under the name Hermes Trimegistos, in particular by a sect called the
Therapeutai, was very similar to Essene sects, to the extent we understand them.  There is also
a later tradition, involving Christian allusions if not Christianity, in a variety of texts
called the Sibylline Oracles and Chaldean Oracles.  This literature, Hermetic, Orphic, Chaldean,
is part of the occult or gnostic "penumbra" to Christianity.  These are not exactly the same
as the mystery religions, which are quite a bit older, but blend with them (especially the
Isis-Osiris cult).  At one end it attaches itself to the Pythagorean-Platonic tradition of
philosophy, and at the other

In the late third century, the Roman world nearly fell apart, both as to religion and as to
imperial control.  In a sort of "pre-figuring" of the barbarian invasions of the fifth
century, a regionalist Gallic Empire formed a schism, and so did the Palmyrene Empire
("Baal's last stand") in Syria-Palestine.  These anti-Roman local empires were eventually
conquered and re-integrated.  [The western schism set the stage for Constantine's later successful
revolt.]  Both peripheral empires developed local cults.

In any event, in the third century one branch of Neo-Platonism, due to Proclus, developed which
emphasized "theurgy"--or "god-working"--the use of magic and sacrificial rites to control
"gods" and make them do one's bidding.  This branch of pagan philosophy believed that "teleosis"
was possible--to travel "home" across the spheres to the Platonic One.   Perhaps there are echoes
of Christian material here.  Liberal critics will, of course, say the influence ran the other way,
and Christians borrowed "theosis" and "divinization" on pagan models.  We can surely say that
monasticism and magic travel in parallel trajectories, with magicians and philosophers hovering
like a hostile demons about the Christians, ready by turns to steal doctrine and wisdom, pervert it,
and to denounce and kill their victims!

In the classrooms of Alexandria, Christians like Origen and pagans like Plotinus learned side-by-side
from the same masters.  It is hard to reconstruct the exact give-and-take, but Christians and Pagans
often crossed verbal swords, and discussed the same topics in different lights.  In this milieu we
find both Origen's brilliance and his ultimate heresy, and the beginnings of Arianism, as well as the
material for late "paganism" (really, so much like Christianity as to be "heresy" shading off into
"heterodoxy" rather than the old religion, which was quite dead in academic circles).   Paganism grows
so close to Christianity--not the other way around--that "Christian Platonism" is sometimes mistaken
for Christianity, and figures like Augustine and C.S. Lewis, who hover on its edges, are controversial.

As to toll house, "telonion" is a customs house at the terminus of one's journey--the final expense
before a merchant gets to sell his wares and make a profit.  If he is shaken down for all he's worth,
the journey is profitless but at least he breaks even.

One presumes the term is derived from "telones" (Publican).  The same word could be used as well
of a tax collector's booth, situated, naturally, at the crossroads.  Thus we get a composite
image of a typical "fork in the road" or choice-point in the Roman Empire, with its tax collector
or publican's booth and its "demons" or idols.

The transitional philosopher between the Plotinus-Porphyry-Augustine tradition (the later foundation
of Latin scholasticism) and the St. Dionysios-St. Maximos continuation is Iamblichus--

http://www.esotericarchives.com/oracle/iambl_th.htm#contents

Note in Part V:

[[The Magians and Theurgic priests entertained 'the notion that
it was not in reason for the soul to be made pure by corporeal sacrifices,
but Porphyry is said to have conceded that the inferior part of the soul, the
"mortal soul," might be thereby purified to a certain degree, though not sufficiently
for it to attain immortality. The "teleôsis" here spoken of was understood by Proclus
to consist in the union of the soul to the Divine Father, by means of the "perfective rite"
or initiation: but Porphyry affirmed, as Augustine declared, that those who were thus purified,
did not return to the Father or Supreme Divinity, but dwelt above the aerial region among
the gods of the æther.]]

So the pagan view of the "aerial daemons" is that they are "failed attempts at theosis" by
the incorporeal souls escaping evil matter.  The problem is not getting past them, but avoiding
(by proper gnosis, theurgic rites, and so forth) ending up as one of them.

It may be (pure speculation, suggested by me) that the exact term "toll-houses" was as a Christian
rebuttal to this doctrine.  I suggest this because it is such a good pun.  They tried for
teleosis, and they got stopped at the telonion (limits of the sublunar sphere).  In any event,
Christians admitted the aerial spirits, but classified those "deamons" (or djinn in later Arabic
translations), as evil spirits, not neutral or helpful.  In the magic tradition, by contrast,
they are helpful servants, rather like "familiars".  "Ariel" in Shakespeare's _Tempest_ is a good
late example of a magicians Aerial helper.

Iamblichus successor is Proclus, who is the last major representative of pagan Neo-Platonism.
He would be of little interest to Christians except for two accidents.  His philosophy underlies
the vocabulary of St. Dionysios the Aeropagite, and his "Elements of Theology" (mistakenly attributed
to Aristotle and renamed the _Liber de Causis_) became a primary text for Latin scholasticism.

On a more vulgar (folk-centric) note, the image of "a good and bad spirit" hovering over each
shoulder of the person at the cross-roads--making a choice--is drawn from Iamblichus' "ephors"
or "directors of decision".

The writings of St. Dionysios are difficult--scholars note the "Procline" theology is so thick
they doubt the author is even Christian.  There was enough suspicion in Orthodox circles that
the writings of St. Maximos (Maximus Confessor) were needed to "re-habilitate" them and spike
some of the Procline, pagan interpretations, and defend their Orthodoxy.  Once we are in the
writings of St. Maximos, we are on ground so central to Orthodox tradition that the way forward
is clear.

The interest of this history is not so much its centrality to our Tradition, as the proof it
affords that the central concerns of that Tradition--theosis, the role of askesis in fighting
demons, who are particularly to be found in deserted and high places [see the story of St. Guthlac
in _Anglo-Saxon Spirituality_, e.g.], the ladder/climbing metaphor, and many stock notions
of monasticism--all these concerns are rooted in commonplaces of late antiquity, refuting the notion
that they are "later corruptions" or outright borrowings of paganism, as those of the "19th century
biblical criticism" tradition often assert.   On the contrary, Christianity carries on a six-century
dialogue with paganism, staking out its own position on all the issues.  The answers and viewpoint
are quite consistent on the part of Christianity, even if the points of interest shift with
the latest trends in paganism.

=dr. john=

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December 1998, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 1
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October 1998, Week 1
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April 1998, Week 1
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December 1997, Week 5
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December 1996, Week 5
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September 1996, Week 1
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March 1996, Week 3
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March 1996, Week 1
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February 1996, Week 1
January 1996, Week 5
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January 1996, Week 3
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January 1996, Week 1
December 1995, Week 5
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December 1995, Week 3
December 1995, Week 2
December 1995, Week 1
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October 1995, Week 5
October 1995, Week 4
October 1995, Week 3
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October 1995, Week 1
September 1995, Week 5
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September 1995, Week 1
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July 1995, Week 3
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May 1995, Week 1
April 1995, Week 5
April 1995, Week 4
April 1995, Week 3
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April 1995, Week 1
March 1995, Week 5
March 1995, Week 4
March 1995, Week 3
March 1995, Week 2
March 1995, Week 1
February 1995, Week 4
February 1995, Week 3
February 1995, Week 2
February 1995, Week 1
January 1995, Week 5
January 1995, Week 4
January 1995, Week 3
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January 1995, Week 1
December 1994, Week 5
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December 1994, Week 1
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March 1994, Week 1
February 1994, Week 4
February 1994, Week 3
February 1994, Week 2
February 1994, Week 1
January 1994, Week 5
January 1994, Week 4
January 1994, Week 3
January 1994
December 1993

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