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ORTHODOX  April 1996, Week 3

ORTHODOX April 1996, Week 3

Subject:

Music, Monophonic, polyphonic

From:

Bishop Tikhon <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Orthodox Christianity <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 17 Apr 1996 22:20:58 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (69 lines)

Christ is risen!
There've been not a few posts on the topic whether the Byzantine Chant with ison
is monophonic or polyphonic. "Phonic" as used in these two words refers to a
melody or a part, not to a quantity of people. If two people are singing, and
one is singing on "A" and one on "F" that is *not* monophony: it is polyphony.
There's no way for Byzantine Music afficionados to wriggle out of that. If they
want to do without their ison, then and only then  will they have arrived at
compliance with their own definition of canonical strictness. If they want to
keep their ison, they will have to face the uncontrovertible fact that they are
using *polyphony.*
Some Russians on the other hand have interpreted polyphony, translated as
Mnogoglasie, I believe, as describing a practice forbidden by the stoglav
council, but still followed by Old Believers--but whether they do or not is not
important. At some points in history and possibly even today, the determination
to utter every prescribed word of every service led to a practice where  the
Choir, say,  might be singing a litiya verse while the Deacon was already
beginning the first long petition of the Litiya itself--or the priest might be
chanting the prayer of blessing of loaves while the choir was still singing the
troparion. The Typikon states, for example that Liturgy on Sunday should start
at the third hour of the day so that the trapeza could start at the fourth
hour,. This means the Liturgy had to be completed before an hour was up. The
solution is to make the long Priest's prayers "secret" so that the Choir could
get the litanies and antiphons done in a shorter time, and so forth. The
Mnogoglasie or mnogogolosie just meant a lot was being chanted at the same
time-- and this chanting could be monophonic as we understand it or polyphonic
as we understand it.
        The next step in the development of harmony/polyphony after "ison" is
"organum", I believe, where one voice follows in exact parallel the main chant
at a distance of a fifth.  Other voices are added until four, six, eight twelve
and sixteen part harmony are reached--our modern music system.
         I believe that it would be very helpful to the whole debate, especially
the latest entry from Athanasius in Greece, to ponder St.Basil the Great's words
on the purpose of church music:
        "What did the Holy Spirit do when He saw that the human race was not led
easily to virtue, and that due to our penchant for pleasure we gave little heed
to an upright life? He mixed sweetness of melody with doctrine so that
inadvertently we would absorb the benefit of the words through gentleness and
ease of hearing, just as clever physicians frequently smear the cup with honey
when giving the fastidious some rather bitter medicine to drink. Thus He
contrived for us these harmonious psalm tunes, so that those who are children in
actual age, as well as those who are young in behavior, while appearing only to
sing would in reality be training their souls. For no one of these many
indifferent people ever leaves church easily retaining in memory some maxim of
either the Apostles or the Prophets, but they do sing the texts of the Psalms at
home and circulate them in the market place."
        It seems to me that the purposes that St.BAsil describes are ideally met
by Russian Church chant. I remember how plain old tone six made it easy and even
almost an unconscious process for me to learn "O Heavenly King," thirty six
years ago when I first became Orthodox. I can't imagine any modern non-Greek or
non-Arabic American going away from a service in unharmonized Byzantine chant
with any melodies at all on his lips or in his heart. Hector Berlioz came away
from his first Divine Liturgy in a Russian Church with emotion he described as
unforgettable and indescribably moving. "Beneath thy tender mercies" (Pod' tvoiu
milost'),even an old clunker like Vedel's "Pokayania otverzi mi" (Open unto me
the doors of repentance, O Life-giver) I heard at its most beautiful when an
eighty year old Russian woman confined to bed in a convalescent home sang it to
me from beginning to end when I visited her during the Great Fast. How sad that
a learned and well-known scholar of Russian Church music told his choir once
that (in reference to the same Vedel)"Oh, I'll never ever sing such garbage!") I
can't imagine this happening with Frank Desby's reconstructed "pure" Byzantine
melodies, for example. Yes, there are Byzantine "hits" as well: the Proemium
from the Akathist: Ti hypermacho stratego... Every generation on Good Friday
(although I believe the latter is usually accompanied by the abominable soulless
musical instrument: the organ in most Greek Churches these days.)
 Probably a lot of you disagree with me, but I do hope that you at least
enjoyed St.Basil.
Love,
Indeed, He's risen!
+B.T.

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January 1994
December 1993

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